Chemical Research and Technology

Chemical research and technology is an interdisciplinary branch of science and engineering. It encompasses all of the following fields:

Chemical Engineering: Chemical engineering is an interdisciplinary field, drawing on concepts from chemical physics, physical chemistry, and mechanical engineering to produce a range of industrial processes for producing chemicals.

Chemistry: Chemistry is one of the oldest sciences still in existence today. Chemistry is concerned with the interactions between atoms and the changes that occur in materials as a result.

Chemistry can be divided into several subfields:

Physical Chemistry: It deals with the physical properties of chemical substances and chemical reactions and deals with how molecular phenomena govern these. Physical chemistry is also concerned with phase transitions (including critical phenomena), thermodynamics, chemical equilibria, solids, liquids, gases, and spectroscopy structures.

Molecular Science: Molecular science studies chemistry at the atomic and molecular levels. This includes quantum chemistry, spectroscopy, polymer science, bio-molecules, and chemical kinetics.

Polymer Science is a branch of material science that studies large molecules known as polymers. Polymers are large molecules formed by linking many smaller molecules together in a very precise manner. They can be used for making one of the following: plastics, fibers, or elastomers.

Physical Chemistry: It deals with the physical properties of chemical substances and chemical reactions and deals with how molecular phenomena govern these. Physical chemistry is also concerned with phase transitions (including critical phenomena), thermodynamics, chemical equilibria, the structures of solids, liquids, and gases, and spectroscopy.

The Chemical Engineering Design Division looks at ways of solving technical problems related to wastewater treatment in a sustainable manner. These solutions could be applied to both industry and households.

The Chemical Engineering Design Division’s research focuses in the areas of the following:

Water Reuse: Research on water reuse focuses on micro-filters applications. The water they use is a high salinity brine, which can be reused. These filters are applied to industrial plants that use effluent for cooling purposes. Effluent represents more than 80 percent of the industrial outflows and has become an important issue as people have become more conscious about environmental issues involving effluents.

Waste-to-Energy: Research in this area has led to the developing of a new type of membrane for a process that can convert wastewater into hydrogen. This process is called UF-SURFACE. The technology developed by Dr. Eshghi and his team can be used to produce hydrogen at the cost of 6 cents per kilogram, compared to the current industry standards of 20 cents per kilogram. The project’s next stage will involve building an experimental unit to scale up the process from 2 to 200 liters and eventually to 2,000 liters- a prerequisite for industrialization.

Dr. Eshghi’s vision is to enable chemical and energy industries to produce hydrogen at an affordable cost while concurrently producing environmentally friendly products.

Chemistry and modern beauty industry

The chemistry industry is the industry that deals with one of the most important thinkers in science, Sir Humphry Davy. This company is responsible for providing people with a way to understand how their bodies function. They also are in charge of supplying a variety of different beauty products.

One of the firs chemistry companies to really make an impact in the beauty industry was L’Oreal. The CEO and current chairman, Lindsay Owen-Jones, was distraught after his daughter died from leukemia at the age of three years old. He formed a new company to further fund research into cancer treatments and cures for other diseases that could be fatal without chemotherapy treatment.

Extensive genetic research and development, spread across several countries, is finally coming to fruition. Although the structure of DNA was discovered in 1953, the science of genetics did not really start to progress until around 1990 when it became possible to understand the structure of genetic information on a molecular level. This understanding gave rise to the science of genetic engineering. Now scientists are able to isolate genes associated in some way with specific diseases and either turn them off or replace them with their healthy counterparts (Reiss).


I am proud to say that I am a member of this company even though it does not make beauty products like toothbrushes and hairbrushes for people like me. These products are much more important because they use a lot of science to make sure that they work the best they can and therefore help people in such a difficult way. This company also helps people from all over the world get access to life-saving treatments so that everyone can live longer and healthier lives. These treatments do not cost much at all, compared to other once-per-year prescriptions, so this company is definitely trying to take care of all of us with their great products and amazing services.

Why study at Columbia University?

Whether you just received a calling letter to study at the prestigious Columbia University or in your final year, you likely wonder what’s in it for you. That depends on many things. For example, if you are cloistered away from the hustle and bustle of city life, you won’t find Columbia convenient. Here are four reasons to study at Columbia University.

  1. It’s the 7th largest property owner in New York CityStudying at Columbia not only allows you to enjoy New York City’s experience but also makes you feel like you’re in one of the best institutions for higher learning in the world. The main campus is only 36 acres, capable of housing thousands of students from all walks of life. It’ll also please you to learn that it’s the seventh-largest property owner occupying New York City.
  2. State-of-the-art classrooms

Of all classrooms in Columbia University, 309 Havemeyer Hall takes the trophy hands down. The classrooms are equipped with ultra-modern features, including three original spiderman films to make you feel like you’re exploring Disney World. Also, they have the best course instructors from all parts of the world whose goal is to impart knowledge and decorate the best students of all time.

  1. A Nobel-prized destination of achievers

From Barack Obama, Alicia Keys, to Amelia Earhart, nothing beats the satisfying feeling of knowing you’re in a higher learning institution that decorated some of the world’s influential people and alumni. The university has a rich history of educating four presidents, 90+ Pulitzer Prize winners, 84+ Nobel prize winners, and over 46 Olympians. Being a student here is already an achievement even before your graduation day.

  1. The hub of the world’s most brilliant inventions

Columbia University is home to some of the world’s most outstanding inventions made. For example, the Manhattan Project took place during the Second world war. Did you know that researchers came up with their first nuclear weapon (atomic bomb) were from this institution? Other discoveries that came to the limelight include FM Radio, neon laser, and many more. Today, the world recognizes Columbia as the hub for securing patents for thousands of projects and research.


While other higher learning institutions compete with Columbia in terms of projects and research, it’s proven beyond reasonable doubt that it’s one of the best. When you join this institution, be ready to tackle new challenges coupled with ultra-modern features, making your learning experience worthwhile.

Chemical Process Calculations

Chemical Process Calculations (CPC) is computer software for solving industrial chemical kinetics problems. The CPC program uses the well-known DARC model to calculate the concentrations of one or more species involved in a chemical process. The relative rates of formation and consumption of each species are expressed as temperature, pressure, space velocity (flow rate), catalyst activity, reactor geometry, and composition.
The program is flexible enough to handle a wide variety of chemical reactions.
In the past, CPC has been used for applications in petroleum technology, synthetic fuels, pharmaceuticals, food chemistry, and environmental protection. Chemical process calculations have also been performed as part of ongoing R&D at companies such as Union Carbide Corp., Inco Ltd., PPG Industries, Inc., Monsanto Chemical Co., Allied Chemical Corp, and BASF-Wyandotte Corp.
CPC was first released in the mid-1970s for IBM mainframe computers (OS/MVS), and later ported to other operating systems such as Unix and Linux. CPC is written in Fortran 77, with some statements in Fortran 90.
The DARC 2.1 version of CPC has been updated with a new graphical user interface (GUI). The original command-line version remains available and uses the same input files as before.
Input data formats for chemical process calculations have changed from earlier versions. New input file templates are used, which provide an opportunity for more thorough data checking. Some mandatory information can be entered as text comments which are not processed by the program.
In addition to chemical kinetics, a wide range of thermodynamic and transport properties for pure chemicals and mixtures can be calculated from either published or user-defined reference equations. An extensive collection of physical property correlation equations is included with all standard methods for vapor pressure, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and many others.

Use cases

The following are some examples of how CPC has been used in the past. Future changes to the DARC 2.1 version may include new features suitable for users within these categories of application:

Petroleum-refinery optimization
Biomass gasification
Chemical reactor design by simulation
Catalyst deactivation
CPC software can be used to predict reactions and rates of chemical processes under a variety of conditions. The CPC program solves a set of first-order differential equations with respect to a single independent variable for a number of species simultaneously. This includes the traditional “transport” variables (mass fraction, molar concentration) and more advanced variables, including activity coefficient or molar excess. Standard methods for pressure, temperature, and composition are available in the calculation of transport properties. A wide range of advanced equations for vapor-liquid equilibrium properties are also included.

Belly Fat Article

Would you like to flatten your belly in seven days? Maybe you have a pending special occasion and you need to get it done in a hurry. Or, you’ve bought a gorgeous new dress that you’re dying to show off, but you need to lose a few inches in the waist first.

Fortunately for you there are some things you can do to change that in a hurry. You can be looking stunning in that new dress in no time at all by applying a few easy steps.

Cut Down On High-Calorie Foods and Drink More Fluids

The first thing you’ll need to do is reduce your calorie intake. This will force your body to start burning that excess fat stored up in the layers of your belly. Next, you’ll need to reduce the amount of food you eat, and start drinking more water.

Drinking more water serves two purposes – it helps you feel full so you want to be tempted to eat as much or often; and it helps convert fat to energy. Water is also instrumental in moving badly needed nutrients throughout the body to help regulate your metabolism. A stable metabolism prevents the body from storing up all that excess fat in the first place.

When you don’t drink enough water, your body’s first inclination is to bloat to compensate. Also, your face will begin to sink and wrinkles will set in, making you look older than you are.

Try Detoxing

Instead of a cup of coffee, why not begin your day with a nice, tall, refreshing glass of lemon water. Lemon water is one of the quickest and easiest ways to eliminate belly fat.

Lemon water helps flush toxins from your liver and the liver is the chief organ responsible for breaking down body fat. That is why when the liver isn’t functioning properly, you encounter serious medical problems. So help your liver to function properly by adding lemon water to your diet.

Eat Lots of Hydrated Fruits Like Watermelon

Watermelon is more than 90 percent water, so it doesn’t take much to make you feel full. So it is a good idea to eat watermelon before each meal and before bed time, as it will make you feel full without adding all those excess calories. But, watermelon is a natural flush, so you don;t have to worry about water retention.

Add a Few Exercises to Your Regimen

Let’s face it, if you really want to burn away that belly fat quickly you’ll have to exercise some. So, if you’re really serious about looking great in that new dress, you’re gonna have to work at it.

Start with a combination of cardio and exercise targeting your abs, like crunches and situps.

For cardio, try jogging and skipping rope. But let’s face it, you’re gonna have to go at it pretty hard too, if you want to accomplish your goal in seven days. But it’s gonna be worth it because, at the end of the seven days, you’re gonna look stunning in that new dress.

What is a healthy diet plan?

A healthy diet plan provides the body with the nutrients it needs on a regular basis while still allowing you to stick to your daily calorie target for weight loss. A healthy diet plan will also help you avoid heart disease and other illnesses.
A healthy diet should mostly constitute of vitamins like vegetables, fruits, whole grain, fat-free or low-fat dairy products. It should include lean meats, fish, poultry, eggs and nuts for proteins. Have limited sodium, added sugars and the sizes should be controlled.

A healthy diet plan can help prevent malnutrition in all of its types, as well as non-communicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Unhealthy diet plans and lack of physical activities are the main causes of global health problems. Dietary habits have shifted as a result of the increased development of processed foods, rapid urbanization, and shifting lifestyles. People are consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars, and salt, and many are not eating enough fruits, vegetables, and other dietary fiber such as whole grains.
Other characteristics like age, gender, lifestyle, physical activities, cultural background, locally available foods, and dietary customs all influence the composition of a healthy diet.
A healthy diet plan entails deciding which foods would be the most beneficial in achieving your goals. It ensures that you eat a variety of foods and encourages you to consume more fruits and vegetables, which can lower the risk of chronic lifestyle diseases.
By sticking to a healthy diet plan, you can make sure you’re consuming the right things in the right amounts.
In conclusion, a healthy diet plan should focus on a variety of food; even consumption in small amounts, feeding frequently to maintain blood sugar levels. Balancing feeding with physical activities, taking breakfast daily and controlling the amounts of processed foods into your system.

Categories of the Chemical Process Simulation

Chemical process simulation is a discipline in chemical engineering. The process simulation employs mathematical models in its analysis, testing, prediction, and detecting the behavior of a process unrelated to whether or not the process exists in reality. Chemical process simulation is applied in chemical engineering to boost the knowledge level for chemical engineering in a particular process. Therefore, chemical process simulation helps us explore the options in which the processes in chemical engineering should be developed.

Chemical process simulation allows scientists and engineers to explore the available alternatives and define the most optimal process through the processes explained below:

In the chemical process simulation, process design defines the process flowsheets using the process synthesis. The heat balance and the materials are also part of the key considerations. The process design is aimed at determining the optimal design conditions and the best flowsheet.

Similarly, the research and development aim at improving specific parts of the experiment that require continuous improvement and research. It requires that the process undergo continuous monitoring such that any existent flaws are pointed out for improvements. The chemical engineers monitor the performance regularly to change the conditions of the reactor in good time.

Production planning is an essential part of the chemical process simulation because it helps place the chemical industry or process in the market. Planning ensures economic viability. The chemical process is checked to ensure it will have profitability once it starts to run. Optimal operations and production are determined in the production planning.

The dynamic simulation analyzes the operation of an optimal process to ensure controllability, safety, and alignment with environmental constraints. Dynamic simulation is critical in determining the goals, control strategies, and control parameters.

Chemical process simulation of education and training facilitates operators’ and engineers’ training and education when the process will be running. The optimization simulation ensures that the chemical process runs under optimal conditions that cater to economic benefits.

Therefore, process simulation application ranges from production planning to research and development, process design, education and training, optimization, and decision-making. These applications are all critical in the simulation process.

What Now That You Have Lost Car Keys?

It’s such a pain when you have lost car keys. The first thing you do is to search thoroughly. Unfortunately, you may not always find the lost car keys no matter how hard you search. In such a case, you may need a new set.

Getting a new set of car keys is not that straightforward. You will first need to determine the type of lost car keys and the kind of car you own. Replacing the lost car keys will be done as follows:

i. Start by determining the kind of keys your car uses.
ii. Determine the best method for the lost key replacement and the most suitable budget.
iii. Collect all the appropriate information you will need while replacing the car key. The information includes the car model and make and the VIN.
iv. If need be, tow your car to the location of the key replacement.
v. After everything is done, test the new keys to make sure they are working perfectly.

Who will you call when replacing your lost car keys?
The type of technology that your keys use will determine who will replace the lost keys. It is important to replace your lock or upgrade its technology if your keys have been stolen to ensure that the old keys will not work.

  1. Dealership
    They have the technology and equipment for replacing all types of keys from your manufacturer. Lost smart keys are strictly replaced at the dealership, but other keys have options.
  2. Locksmith
    Locksmiths have the capability to replace lost car keys with various degrees of technological sophistication. Bear in mind that you will give your car keys the details because this will help them know if they can help. Mobile locksmiths will usually come to your location to offer the services.
  3. Online Retailer
    Online retailers help save on the labor costs from the professionals. Rather, you purchase a replacement key fob from an online retailer. After purchase, you should do the key cut and then program the key.

Whichever you will choose while replacing your lost car keys, ensure you know the year of your car, its model, make, and the VIN. Besides, your driver’s license, car registration, or an appropriate method that confirms your ownership of the vehicle will be a mandatory requirement. You can click here if you lost your car keys and have no one to call…

Chemistry Simulation Software

If you would like to evaluate some of the different simulations you need to get done in chemistry, it is important to find some chemistry simulation software to help you get this done. This kind of software can help teachers and students better understand various chemical processes by the use of simulation. Even professionals in the field can use this kind of software to help them get things done in chemistry.

Chemistry Simulation

Basically, you need to find the right software that will help you to simulate different conditions in a steady state of different types of chemical processes. This software is great for helping you in the design of the chemical process while also rating the current process. Some of the chemistry simulation software that you can utilize includes:

  • CHEMCAD: This is a suite of software that will help you to do simulation. It comes with a full library of all the chemical components and even the thermodynamic methods and units. This helps you to have a steady state simulation to start but it is easy to scale.
  • Virtual Lab: This is an online resource to help you learn chemistry. There are a number of pre-made activities that you can use to help you with basic chemistry and you can try the different experiments.
  • HSC Chemistry: This is a software that works on Windows. It has a large database to make it easy to try different simulations as necessary.

Chemistry simulation software is the perfect option to choose to help you get everything done that you need. It is simple to use and can do all of the simulations that you need in a safe setting, allowing you to experiment and move things around until you get the right results. There are many options for this type of software so shop around and find the right one for you.
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Are Dental Implants Safe?

perfect teeth
perfect teeth?

You may be wondering if you should get dental implants. One of the most important questions that consumers have is if dental implants are safe. You may have been looking at your teeth and knowing you need to do something. That’s why you also have questions though about the procedures that are out there. It’s only natural really to wonder about the safety of something, even if it’s commonly done. It’s still surgery and you want to cover all your bases. In the following article, The next video explore the safety of dental implants:

Dental implants entail majorly uprooting your mouth. You will find that you will have to go at least a week or two with metal sticks in your mouth before the implant can be screwed on. Some people are very upset by this. That is why most people only consider implants as a last resort to dentures.

There is a chance that the screws will not take. If this happens, then you will have to give up the procedure entirely or try again with the healing process. It can be frustrating for a person who is younger who just wants a nice smile. Also, the world doesn’t stop so you may have to go around looking funny. This is why you should ask your doctor if you can wear false teeth during this healing time.

All in all, the process may not last very long. It may need to be redone even. However, you will get years and years of wear out of your implants when it’s all said and done. It’s a safe procedure that is medically supervised. Of course, you should never get black market teeth because of the risk of complications. Those who get these teeth are ecstatic that they will have real teeth again instead of dentures.
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